An ovarian cyst is fluid filled swelling, that develops on or inside an ovary, the female reproductive organs responsible for producing eggs and hormones. Ovarian cysts are very common and can affect women of any age, although they are more frequent during the reproductive years.

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Types of Ovarian Cysts

  • Functional Cysts: These are the most common type of ovarian cysts and often form as a normal part of the menstrual cycle. They include follicular cysts and corpus luteum cysts.
  • Pathological Cysts: These cysts result from abnormal cell growth and can include dermoid cysts, endometriomas, tumors, cystadenomas.


  • Hormonal Imbalances: Fluctuations in hormone levels, particularly estrogen and progesterone, can contribute to cyst formation.
  • Endometriosis: can lead to endometriomas.
  • Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS)
  • Age: reproductive age functional cysts common, older age pathologic cysts common
  • History of Ovarian Cysts
  • Family History: A family history of cysts


Symptoms of Ovarian Cysts

  • Asymptomatic and detected incidentally on imaging like ultrasound.
  • Pelvic Pain: Dull, aching pain in the lower abdomen
  • Bloating or Fullness of abdomen.
  • Irregular Periods
  • Pain During Intercourse
  • Frequent Urination
  • Sudden, Severe Abdominal or Pelvic Pain: May indicate a ruptured or twisted cyst.
  • Fever and Vomiting: Signs of infection or a ruptured cyst.
  • Faintness or Dizziness: May result from internal bleeding.

Invesyigations for Ovarian Cysts

  • Pelvic Examination
  • Ultrasound
  • Blood Tests: S. CA-125, HE 4,S. AFP, beta hCG, LDH are tumor markers useful in some cases.
  • MRI or CT Scan: These may be used for further evaluation if needed.
  • Diagnostic Laparoscopy: When there is doubt rgarding nature of ovarian cyst, it better to assess directly by laparoscopy and if required it is removed and histologic analysis done.

   Biopsy/ FNAC is NOT done in case of Ovarian cyst/ Lesion.

Treatment of Ovarian cyst:

Treatment Depends on Several Factors:

  • Size and Type of Cyst: Small, functional cysts may resolve on their own. Larger or complex cysts may require treatment.
  • Symptoms: Treatment may be recommended if pain or other symptoms.
  • Age and Reproductive Plans: age and desire for future pregnancies influence treatment decisions.

Common Treatment Options:

  • Watchful Waiting:** Monitoring the cyst’s growth with regular follow-up.
  • Medications: Hormonal contraceptives or medication to induce ovulation.
  • Surgery: In cases of large or persistent cysts, laparoscopic surgery may be recommended to remove the cyst while preserving the ovary.

Ovarian cysts are a common occurrence among women and can vary in size and type. While most cysts are harmless and resolve on their own, some may require medical attention and treatment. If you experience symptoms or have concerns about ovarian cysts, it’s essential to consult a healthcare provider for proper evaluation and guidance tailored to your specific situation. Early detection and appropriate management can help ensure your overall gynecological health and well-being of life.

To know more about Laparoscopic Ovarian Cystectomy

For Information on Ovarian Cancer: